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Selected (6) Scholars in Shafritz, Classic Of Public Administration , write an analysis comparing similarities and
differences in their philosophical approach, citing specific examples of their contributions and application of
their principles

I have the pleasure of completing a final review on six outstanding women scholars that made a great impacted the American system in Public Administration. Mary Parker Follett one of the greatest women management experts. Deborah Stone The Art of Political Decision Making. Jane Addams was a philanthropist, anti-war activist, and pioneer. Irene S. Rubin known as the Public Administration in the 21st century. Rosemary O’Leary Public Service Ethics. Camilla Stivers Professor Emerita of Public Administration

Mary Parker Follett
Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933) was a social philosopher who attempted to apply the principles she deduced to practical problems in business, politics, and social work. She was born a member of an old Quincy, Massachusetts, family and was educated at Thayer Academy, Radcliffe College, and the Sorbonne. While still a student at Radcliffe she spent the year 1890-1891 at Newman College, Cambridge, England, where she formed many lifelong friendships. Her intellectual contribution to the social sciences is contained in two books, The New State(1918) and Creative Experience (1924), and a posthumous collection of papers, Dynamic Administration, published in 1942 (see 1926-1930). She died in London.
Among the earliest to see the importance of the group in understanding an individual and his thoughts, she rejected schemes which postulate a dualism between the individual and society, as well as most other forms of causal interaction between these two entities, in favor of the notion of integration.
The New State is a plea for a political order based on an interlocking hierarchy of membership groups, beginning at the neighborhood level. The unit of the community is the socialized individual, that is to say, the individual who, through associational membership, has become a fully participating member of society. This is the new individualism of the new state. In the ideal democracy, therefore, integration of the individual personality and the society is so complete that no conflict, either psychological or social, is conceivable. Democracy does not register various opinions; it is an attempt to create unity (1918, p. 209).
In Creative Experience Follett discussed the prevention and elimination of the failure of integration, that is, of social conflict. She was particularly interested in problems of social change and conflict in small-scale social systems, such as factories, wage boards, regulating commissions, community centers, and neighborhoods.
Mary Parker Follett defined management as the art of getting things through others. Theory of Management marked by the following principles; conflict resolution through integration. In many of her leadership theory genuine power is not coercive (power over) but co active (power with).
Follett identified the constructive role of conflict as a dynamic force with the potential for engendering innovative outcomes at a time when most management theorists regarded conflict as simply dysfunctional.
She recognizes that work situations are evolving and must be understood as such so that orders may keep up with the changing circumstances of work
I am truly amazed by her intellectual brilliance and the continuing relevance of her thought to modern organizations. Indeed, her challenge to us as citizens of democratic societies is yet unmet.

Jane Addams
An American pragmatist and feminist, Hull-House founder Jane Addams (1860-1935) came of age in time of increasing tensions and division between segments of the American society, a division that was reflected in debates about educational reform. In the midst of this diversity, Addams saw the profoundly interdependent nature of all social and political interaction, and she aligned her efforts to support, emphasize and increase this interdependence. Education was one of the ways she relied on to overcome class disparity, as well as to increase interaction between classes….
Jane Addams, a pioneering social worker, helped bring attention to the possibility of revolutionizing America s attitude toward the poor. Not only does she remain a rich source of provocative social theory to this day, her accomplishments affected the philosophical, sociological, and political thought. Addams was an activist of courage and a thinker of originality. Jane Addams embodied the purest moral standards of society which were best demonstrated by her founding of the Hull-House and her societal contributions, culminating with the winning of the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize..
With her involvement in ending war, and serving as a leader on many boards in other organizations Addams was awarded the Nobel peace prize in 1931. Despite many health complications, Addams continued to fight to end war up until her death. She died in 1935 and her funeral was held in the courtyard of the Hull House

Rosemary O’Leary
Rosemary O’Leary was appointed the Edwin O. Stene Distinguished Professor of Public Administration at the University of Kansas in 2013, following a 24 year career at the Maxwell School of Syracuse University (Phanstiel Distinguished Chair in Strategic Management and Leadership) and the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University-Bloomington (Professor). O’Leary is the author or editor of eleven books and more than 125 articles and book chapters on public management. She was the creator and coordinator of the Minnowbrook III conferences (2008) which assessed the future of public administration around the world. She has won twelve national research awards and ten teaching awards. O Leary was the 2016 recipient of the John Gaus Award (for a lifetime of exemplary scholarship in the joint tradition of political science and public administration ) given by the American Political Science Association and the 2014 recipient of the Dwight Waldo Award (for distinguished contributions to the professional literature of public administration and in recognition of a distinguished career as author, educator, and public administrator ), given by the American Society for Public Administration. She is the only person to win three National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration awards for Best Dissertation (1989), Excellence in Teaching (1996) and Distinguished Research (2004). An elected member of the National Academy of Public Administration, O Leary was a senior Fulbright scholar in Malaysia (1998-99) and in the Philippines (2005-06). In 2014 she was an Ian Axford Public Policy Scholar in New Zealand. From 2003 to 2005 O Leary was a member of the NASA s Return to Flight Task Group assembled in response to the Columbia space shuttle accident. She also has served as a consultant to the U.S. Office of Personnel Management and Federal Executive Institute; U.S. Council on Environmental Quality; U.S. Department of Interior; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; U.S. Geological Survey; U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration; International City/County Management Association; National Academy of Sciences; National Science Foundation; New York State Department of Environmental Conservation; Indiana Department of Environmental Management; U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution; and LMI Consulting. O Leary is President-Elect of the Public Management Research Association, taking office in July 2017.
As a professor of public administration, she believe it is her responsibility to share my knowledge with practitioners and to learn continuously about the challenges they face. She did this by offering training, presentations, coaching, and workshops on collaboration as a leadership and management strategy, as well as training in interest-based collaborative problem solving.

Camilla Stivers
2013) – Professor Emerita of Public Administration, Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs, Cleveland State University. Perhaps public administrations foremost feminist theorist makes the following case as long as we go on viewing the enterprise of administration as genderless, women will continue to face their present hobsons choice, which is either to adopt a masculine administrative identity or accept marginalization in the bureaucratic hierarchy.
Former positions at Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs, CSU: Professor and Distinguished Scholar of Public Administration; Albert A. Levin Professor of Urban Studies and Public Service. Former positions at The Evergreen State College, Olympia, WA: Faculty, Public Administration; Director, Graduate Program in Public Administration. Former Instructor, Washington Management Service, Washington State Department of Personnel; Associate Study Director, Committee on the Future of Public Health, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences; Consultant to Washington, DC Community Health Centers; Director, Plan Implementation and Community Relations, West Texas Health Systems Agency, El Paso, TX; Director of Development, East of the River Health Association, Washington, DC; Director, Anacostia Community Development Consortium, Washington, DC; College Relations Officer, Marymount College of Virginia, Arlington, VA; Project Director, Towson State College, Towson, MD; Executive Secretary/Project Director, Higher Education Council on Urban Affairs, Baltimore.

Irene S. Rubin
born May 3, 1945, received her PhD. Degree in sociology from the University of Chicago, Emeritus of public Administration at Northern Illinois University, known as the Public Administration in the 21th century. Research interests are budgeting, the politics of bureaucracy, organizational theory, and qualitative research methods. Former editor in chief of the Public Administration Review.
Rubin research emphasized the effects of changing resource levels on organization behavior, particularly on budgeting and personnel decisions. Rubin has studied state university, federal agencies, and cities. She has written journal articles about citizen participation in local level government in Thailand, how universities adapt when their budgets are cut, and fights between legislative staffers and elected and appointed official about unworkable policy proposals.
Rubin believe public budgets are not merely technical managerial documents; they are also intrinsically and irreducibly political. Budget reflect the relative proportion of decisions made for local and constituency purposes, and for efficiency, effectiveness, and broader public goals. Budgets reflect citizens’ preferences for different forms of taxation and different levels of taxation.

Deborah Stone
She is currently a lecturer in Public Policy in the Department of Urban Studies and planning at MIT. She is also an Honorary professor of political science at Aarhus University in Denmark, where she occasionally teaches as a visiting professor.
Deborah Stone calls the struggle over ideas the “essence of policy making.” Discuss this claim with respect to leading theories of the policy process.
I name my answer to question as “Idea and Deborah Stone”, I want go through her book and explain why ideas are so important.
According to Deborah Stone, ideas will help people to define alliance, strategic considerations also ideas will help people to get the legitimacy and draw policy boundaries. (Deborah, P 34). According to Deborah Stone, ideas will decide “who will be affected”, “how will they be affected” and “will they be affected legitimately” (Stone, P.34).
In the first Chapter, Stone starts her analysis at the city-state (the Greek term polis) level. The public policy is considered as an attempt to achieve a certain community goals (Deborah, P 21). However, due to the fact that everyone has his own understanding of ideas, therefore the political community has become a place for internal debates over “who will be affected”, “how will they be affected” and “will they be affected legitimately”(Deborah, P 34) . The policy-making process has thus become a continuous interaction between the conflict and cooperation.


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